Chemian has undertaken numerous field and laboratory trials to test the effect of Citrepel® on an array of insects.
We also have a substantial body of data supporting its safety for use on human skin. Leading authorities worldwide now recognise Citrepel®’s first-rate efficacy, making it the only plant-based repellent with this level of accreditation.
Most of the early efficacy data was generated against the main malaria vectors, such as Anopheles gambiae and Anopholies darlingi, as well as the range of nuisance biting insects.
More recent studies have focused on Aedes aegypti (the main vector for Dengue fever and Zika virus) and ticks (Lyme disease).
These studies generally indicate broad similarity in the levels of efficacy of PMD rich botanic oils and the established synthetic repellents, such as DEET. As the available data on PMD grows, we expect to see more of the academic community recommend PMD as an effective alternative to DEET.
Recent tests by ARCTEC at The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine show excellent results on our Citrepel® products and also on our range of water-based emulsions based on Citrepel® 75. These range from 5% – 20% Citrepel® 75 content (equivalent to 3.75% – 15% PMD). This study is now being extended to increase the data over a wider range of PMD levels. For more information, please contact us directly.
Other field studies, including a series of trials in Bolivia, culminating in double blind randomised placebo controlled clinical trial evaluating the effect on malaria, have also clearly demonstrated the high efficacy of PMD.
Mode of action
Any system for deterring insects seeks to counteract the desirability of the person or animal to the insect. There is still much research looking at what it is that attracts biting insects – carbon dioxide, lactic acid, certain colours and other possible factors – but it is not yet possible to provide definitive answers.
With PMD, the precise mode of action is not fully understood although recent academic research appears to be homing in on the probable active site/enzyme for repellent activity. PMD acts in the vapour phase. It seems that the insects, attracted by the “smell” we give off, fly in a zig-zag pattern towards their meal (ie us), but when confronted by the vapour of PMD, fail to land and fly off in search of an alternative blood source. It has been described as “like an aeroplane coming into land and aborting at the last minute or failing to get its landing gear down.”
Data sheets and independent tests
Chemian Technology has product data sheets, results from independent studies and scientific literature relating to Citrepel® and PMD. Please contact us directly to access copies of this information.